Year 2017, Volume 8, Issue 1, Pages 67 - 82 2017-07-25

An Overview of Historical Background of Unknown Eastern Jews of Turkey
TÜRKİYENİN BİLİNMEYEN DOĞU YAHUDİLERİNİN TARİHSEL GEÇMİŞLERİNE GENEL BİR BAKIŞ

Süleyman Şanlı [1]

206 912

Since ancient times Mesopotamia and Anatolia were a home for the Jews. During the Roman and Byzantine period there were small Jewish communities known as Karaite and Romaniot in Anatolia. After the foundation of the Ottoman Empire they continued to survive. Afterwards Ashkenazim Jewish communities from central and Eastern Europe began to immigrate to the Ottoman Empire in the fifteenth century. With the deportation of Jews from Spain, Anatolia became new home of Sephardim. As a result of flow of these immigrations, Sephardim became the dominant Jewish community among other Jewish groups. Thus, Jews were scattered in different parts of the Ottoman Empire. The majority of the Jews in the Empire were concentrated in the western regions, especially in Istanbul, Izmir, and Bursa and Edirne provinces. They made important contributions to the development of the Empire’s trade and industry.


There were also considerable Jewish communities who lived in the eastern part of the country in provinces such as Gaziantep, Urfa, Siverek, Diyarbakir, Çermik, Mardin, Nusaybin, Cizre, Başkale and Van. As it is seen by meaning eastern Jews it is referred to Eastern part of first Ottoman later Turkey. This study aims to explore the history of Jews, who once lived in the eastern part of Ottoman Empire and later Turkey. The scarcity of sources indicates that Jews from these regions were received little scholarly attention. Through this study it is expected to make them more visible and to open new research areas for researchers. In addition to written sources it is also benefited from data collected through ethnographic interviews from an anthropological fieldwork conducted by the author in Israel in 2011. Currently, no Jews live or inhabit in the east and southeast of Turkey; therefore, one of the goals of this research is to reveal the existence of a community once had a way of life, beliefs, cultured in a multicultural and multireligious environment of the east.



Eski çağlardan beri Mezopotamya ve Anadolu Yahudiler için bir yurttu. Roma ve Bizans döneminde Anadolu'da Karaite ve Romaniot olarak bilinen küçük Yahudi toplulukları vardı. Osmanlı Devleti'nin kuruluşundan sonra yaşamlarını sürdürmeye devam ettiler. Daha sonra Orta ve Doğu Avrupa'dan gelen Aşkenazim Yahudi cemaatleri on beşinci yüzyılda Osmanlı İmparatorluğuna göç etmeye başladılar. Yahudilerin İspanya'dan gönderilmesiyle birlikte Anadolu, Sefarad Yahudileri için yeni bir yurt oldu. Bu göç dalgalarının bir sonucu olarak Sefarad Yahudileri, diğer Yahudi gruplar arasında hakim Yahudi cemaati haline geldi. Böylece, Yahudiler Osmanlı İmparatorluğu'nun farklı yerlerine dağıldılar. İmparatorluk'taki Yahudilerin çoğunluğu, özellikle İstanbul, İzmir, Bursa ve Edirne gibi batı bölgelerinde yoğunlaştılar. İmparatorluğun ticaret ve sanayinin gelişimine önemli katkılarda bulundular.

 

Ancak, Gaziantep, Urfa, Siverek, Diyarbakır, Çermik, Mardin, Nusaybin, Cizre, Başkale ve Van gibi doğu kesimlerinde yaşayan önemli Yahudi cemaatler de vardı. Görüleceği üzere Doğu Yahudileri derken öncelikle Osmanlı Devletinin doğusunda daha sonra da Türkiye’nin doğusunda yaşayan Yahudilere atıfta bulunulmaktadır. Bu çalışma, bir zamanlar Osmanlı İmparatorluğu'nun ve daha sonraları Türkiye'nin doğusunda yaşayan Yahudilerin tarihini araştırmayı amaçlamaktadır. Kaynak sayısınız azlığı, bu bölgelerdeki Yahudilere az bilimsel ilgi görüldüğünü gösteriyor. Bu çalışma sayesinde, onları daha görünür hale getirmek ve araştırmacılar için yeni araştırma alanların açılması beklenmektedir. Yazılı kaynaklara ek olarak, yazarın 2011'de İsrail'de gerçekleştirdiği antropolojik bir alan çalışmasıyla elde edilen etnografik mülakatlardan da yararlanılmaktadır. Günümüzde Türkiye’nin doğu ve güneydoğusunda Yahudiler yaşamamaktadır. Bu araştırma sayesinde, bir zamanlar doğuda çok kültürlü ve çok dinli bir çevrede yaşayan bir topluluğun varlığını, inançlarını yaşam biçimini ortaya çıkarmak amaçlanmaktadır.

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Subjects Social
Journal Section Articles
Authors

Orcid: 0000-0002-3826-201X
Author: Süleyman Şanlı
Institution: MARDİN ARTUKLU ÜNİVERSİTESİ
Country: Turkey


Dates

Publication Date: July 25, 2017

Bibtex @research article { mukaddime300003, journal = {MUKADDİME}, issn = {1309-6087}, eissn = {2459-0711}, address = {Mardin Artuklu University}, year = {2017}, volume = {8}, pages = {67 - 82}, doi = {10.19059/mukaddime.300003}, title = {An Overview of Historical Background of Unknown Eastern Jews of Turkey}, key = {cite}, author = {Şanlı, Süleyman} }
APA Şanlı, S . (2017). An Overview of Historical Background of Unknown Eastern Jews of Turkey. MUKADDİME, 8 (1), 67-82. DOI: 10.19059/mukaddime.300003
MLA Şanlı, S . "An Overview of Historical Background of Unknown Eastern Jews of Turkey". MUKADDİME 8 (2017): 67-82 <http://mukaddime.artuklu.edu.tr/issue/30410/300003>
Chicago Şanlı, S . "An Overview of Historical Background of Unknown Eastern Jews of Turkey". MUKADDİME 8 (2017): 67-82
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - An Overview of Historical Background of Unknown Eastern Jews of Turkey AU - Süleyman Şanlı Y1 - 2017 PY - 2017 N1 - doi: 10.19059/mukaddime.300003 DO - 10.19059/mukaddime.300003 T2 - MUKADDİME JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 67 EP - 82 VL - 8 IS - 1 SN - 1309-6087-2459-0711 M3 - doi: 10.19059/mukaddime.300003 UR - https://doi.org/10.19059/mukaddime.300003 Y2 - 2017 ER -
EndNote %0 Mukaddime An Overview of Historical Background of Unknown Eastern Jews of Turkey %A Süleyman Şanlı %T An Overview of Historical Background of Unknown Eastern Jews of Turkey %D 2017 %J MUKADDİME %P 1309-6087-2459-0711 %V 8 %N 1 %R doi: 10.19059/mukaddime.300003 %U 10.19059/mukaddime.300003
ISNAD Şanlı, Süleyman . "An Overview of Historical Background of Unknown Eastern Jews of Turkey". MUKADDİME 8 / 1 (July 2017): 67-82. https://doi.org/10.19059/mukaddime.300003
AMA Şanlı S . An Overview of Historical Background of Unknown Eastern Jews of Turkey. Mukaddime Dergisi - Mardin Artuklu Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Dergisi. 2017; 8(1): 67-82.
Vancouver Şanlı S . An Overview of Historical Background of Unknown Eastern Jews of Turkey. MUKADDİME. 2017; 8(1): 82-67.